Monday, June 8, 2020

His Excellency George Washington By Joseph J. Ellis - 1100 Words

His Excellency George Washington By: Joseph J. Ellis (Book Review Sample) Content: Name:Instructor:Course:Date:BiographiesOver the years, there have been a lot of literature materials that have surfaced in relation to the American history. More so, there have been quite a number of books written bibliographies of some of the founding fathers of the American nation. Each of the material captures the struggle of the entire nations and also brings out the various aspects of the founding fathers and the major roles they played in the liberation of the nation, civilization and industry. The character of the founding father also takes the central stage in the bibliographies along with their strengths and weaknesses that shaped their personalities and the nations as well. These are books that give the American history the heritage it deserves. Joseph J. Ellis is one of the authors that have taken to task his ability and experience in the historical recounts of the American history and that of the various founding fathers. A professor in history, Ellis brin gs to light one of the most intriguing pieces about the first president of the American nation, George Washington. In his book, His Excellency George Washington, which launched in 2004, gives the full account of George Washington as the president who shaped the nation at the roots (Ellis, 266).Born in the year 1943 in Washington DC, Joseph Ellis grew up to become one of the professors of history in the nation. Much of his work and study revolved around the founding fathers of the nation, and published books about them, some of which ended up being the best selling at the time. His historical accounts as elaborated in the books have been profound and have even won him a Pulitzer Prize. Some of the most famous accounts were in his recounts of Thomas Jefferson, John Adams and George Washington as discussed in the paper. In his personal quest with this book, Ellis did not want to create another epic, but wanted to bring out another fresh and focused recount of Washington and his influen ce on the nation. Suffice to say that Ellis succeeded in creating a better account of Washington with a better focus that other material that have come before it. He seeks to bring out the man behind the stature and all the facts that exists in literally history (Isaacson, 93). Previously, Washington has been painted as a man that was strict and practiced strict self control at all times; however, Ellis brings a different face of the man that he shows was also passionate. He brings back the experiences that Washington had as a young soldier. The horrors and the experiences of war, with men dying at war, screaming as they are scalped and the element of learning that Washington put to his experiences with reference to guerilla warfare. There is a close relation between what Ellis writes in his book and what Walter Isaacson wrote in Benjamin Franklin: An American Life. They both draw from the young life of the president in discussion and build on their experiences that shaped the natio n and person. At the same time, there is some crucial similarity in the fact that the two authors also point out on the weaknesses that the presidents had as well as their strengths. For example, Ellis states in his book that Washington was overly concerned with his property and issues related to self control. At the same time, the book by  HYPERLINK "/c/walter-isaacson/997150" Walter Isaacson also sites the fact that Franklin had issues with his friendships with women as most of them seemed to take a mistress-like form. As such, the two books give quality recounts of the social and political lives that the president lived. However, in  HYPERLINK "/c/walter-isaacson/997150" Walter Isaacsons book, he chides Franklin citing that if he had attended Harvard much like his father had originally planned; his life would not have taken quite a beating.In another account of George Washington, Brian Kilmeada and Don Yaeger bring out some crucial pointers in George Washingtons secret six: the spy ring that saved the American Revolution. Unlike the account by Ellis, this book concentrates on the elements of the American Revolution (Kilmeade , 100). The book brings out details of the American Revolution with reference to the formation and operations of a ring of six spies that shaped the war as Washington worked to have control of Manhattan and the boroughs neighboring. Other than those characteristics exhibited by Washington, the characters of the six persons are also discussed in depth. This creates an elevated status of the ring members as part of the American Revolution and the legacy by George Washington. The account by Mr. Beck in Being George Washington: The Indispensable Man, As You've Never Seen Him. The book builds on the characteristics of George Washington and tries to put the readers in the shoes of the first president. According to this account, much like Ellis, the author also brings to the attention of the readers the fact that Washington was strugglin g with the self control. At one point, the book relates to the fact that Washington had a problem with anger management. Most of his staffs were weary of the temper issues that the president faced and the level of control that he tried to exercise (Beck, 88). According to Ellis, Washington was weary of the fact that he may loose his property. Ellis reckons that this is a common problem among the rich as they fear that their staffs are either too careless or they a...

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Passing in James Weldon Johnson’s The Autobiography of...

In 1912, The Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man was anonymously published by James Weldon Johnson. It is the narrative of a light-skinned man wedged between two racial categories; the offspring of a white father and a black mother, The Ex-Colored man is visibly white but legally classified as black. Wedged between these two racial categories, the man chooses to â€Å"pass† to the white society. In Passing: When People Can’t Be Who They Are, Brooke Kroeger describes â€Å"passing† as an act when â€Å"people effectively present themselves as other than who they understand themselves to be† (Kroeger 7). The Ex-Colored Man’s choice to ultimately â€Å"pass† at the end of the novel has been the cause of controversy amongst readers. Many claim his choice to â€Å"pass†Ã¢â‚¬ ¦show more content†¦Thus, he is convinced â€Å"passing† for a member of the white society would safeguard him from a life of uncertainty and violence. He is ashamed to be â€Å"indentified with a people [the black race] that would with impunity be treated worse than animals,† affirming his want to be treated as a white person to omit any violence being inflicted onto himself (Johnson 101). This observation coerces the narrator to ultimately decide to â€Å"pass† to the white society. While he declares he will neither â€Å"disclaim the black race nor claim the white race† but he would change (Johnson 101). He will â€Å"let the world take [him] for what it would,† because he refuses to go about life amidst a â€Å"label of inferiority pasted across [his] forehead,† which would occur should he claim the black race (Johnson 101). He recognizes that by intentionally â€Å"passing† he will keep himself out of harm’s way and safe from having such treatment being inflicted upon himself. â€Å"Passing,† for The Ex-Colored Man gives him an initiation into a â€Å"freemasonry of†¦race;† gaining access to a secret knowledge that is out of reach for most individuals (Johnson 59). His ability to view the world from both races enables him to experience â€Å"the attitude of the whole [community] to change,† when he is â€Å"passing† as a black; he is treated differently than when he is â€Å"passing† for white (Johnson 95). This â€Å"freemasonry† is what convinces him the white society is the dominant culture. Success can only beShow MoreRelated James Weldon Johnson Essay654 Words   |  3 PagesJames Weldon Johnson James Weldon Johnson (1871-1938), was a highly talented and celebrated African American writer. He was a poet, songwriter, novelist, literary critic, and essayist. Along with his wide-ranging literary accomplishments, Johnson also served as a school principal, professor of literature at Fisk University, attorney, a diplomatic consul for the United States in Venezuelaand Nicaragua, and secretary for the NAACP from 1920-1930. He is considered one of the founders of the HarlemRead MoreJames Weldon Johnson s The Autobiography Of An Former Colored Man And Nella Larsen s Passing3489 Words   |  14 PagesThe Theme of Passing, Racial Prejudice and Internalized Racism in James Weldon Johnson’s The Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man and Nella Larsen’s Passing The concept of racial passing refers to the occurrence in which an individual is able to transcend racial boundaries. During the Harlem Renaissance, the term â€Å"passing† meant to signify mixed race individuals who were light skinned enough to pass as white and mingle freely within white society, almost completely undetected. This was significantRead MoreThe Autobiography Of An Former Colored Man Essay2265 Words   |  10 PagesMcGivern, 328). However, issuing social categories based on race or ethnicity links to biased regulations and practices. Johnson’s novel, The Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man, examines ways racial identity is socially constructed through the segregation of Jim Crow Laws, the act of passing off† another race, and through practices of lynching. The Autobiography of an Ex Colored Man explores the way racial identity is socially constructed within legally sanctioned forms of racism and discriminationRead MoreRacial Segregation And Jim Cro w Essay2143 Words   |  9 Pageswhite supremacy place on African American life. Racism and Jim Crow were always backed by the threat of violence, moreover, the southern race relations† (Holloway, â€Å"Jim Crow Wisdom: Memory and Identity in Black America since 1940†). The Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man takes place during the Jim Crow era displaying the challenges and obstacles African Americans faced during this time. â€Å"Johnson devotes much of his attention to the black middle and upper classes, their constant struggles to hang ontoRead MoreThe Autobiography Of An Former Colored Man By James Weldon Johnson Essay2267 Words   |  10 PagesThe Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man, James Weldon Johnson James Weldon Johnson’s novel The Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man was first published in 1912. This novel is one of the highly celebrated works during the Harlem Renaissance although it was published prior in 1912. Johnson graduated from Clark Atlanta University in 1894. He was appointed by President Theodore Roosevelt as United States consul to Venezuela and Nicaragua. He also was highly involved in the Harlem Renaissance with hisRead MoreOf An Former Colored Man By James Weldon Johnson Essay2163 Words   |  9 PagesIn James Weldon Johnson’s â€Å"Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man,† the is written narrator to be perceived at face first as an average white male, when in fact he is inherently of colored descent. Consequently, in regards to society s principle of the one-drop rule, the narrator then faces an identity complex in understanding whether he is black since society has categorized him on the account of his bloodline, or white because of his exter nal appearance. For at the end of the novel, he makes the consciousRead MoreJames Weldon Johnson s Narrative Of An Former Colored Man By F. Scott Fitzgerald2191 Words   |  9 PagesIn the James Weldon Johnson’s â€Å"Audio biography of an Ex-Colored Man†, Jonhson’s narrator at face first is written to be perceived as a white male, when in fact he is inherently of colored descent in regards to societies principle of the one drop policy. Consequently, the narrator is faced with an identity complex who finds it difficult to understand whether he is black because of societies has categorized him on the account of his bloodline, or white because of his appearance. For in the end of the

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

I Got Pregnant as a Sophmore Essay - 1401 Words

Scenario: I had become a pregnant sophomore and was wondering what to do. I was so confused about my pregnancy now that Jack had said that he had nothing to do with it and he did not want to se me ever again. How stupid was I, to go with everything he had to say, otherwise I would not be in this dilemma. Not even my parents knew about this. I kept on asking myself if I had to assure them. I thought maybe the best thing was to kill myself before anyone found out about this, but it would not solve anything only depression piled in the walls of my brain that I was not able to concentrate or think of what I was doing. Only God knew what I was going through. It was only a week after I realized I was pregnant. I once had an idea of†¦show more content†¦My school work was drastically falling and made no sense at all I was just confused. I know my parents would notice the change in me but I always had a way to escape their senate. Two weeks later I had to do something that I know I will be judged for in heaven. I took abortion pills and got rid of m y innocent but unplanned for fetus. I really thought it was worth it, I wanted my life back, and unfortunately I was not able to save or rather keep my child?s. It was worth it and my parents or friends never found out but I still have issues with the Lord but I hope he forgives me and I have faith (as my other name says) that he will definitely give me a less painful and memorable side of the valley to the hill. The United States has the highest rates of teen pregnancy and births in the western industrialized world. Teen pregnancy costs the United States at least $9 billion annually. Thirty-one percent of young women become pregnant at least once before they reach the age of 20 -- about 750,000 a year. Eight in ten of these pregnancies are unintended and 81 percent are to unmarried teens. The teen birth rate has declined slowly but steadily from 1991 to 2005 with a decline of 35 percent for those aged 15 to 19. These recent declines reverse the 23-percent rise in the teenage birth rate from 1986 to 1991. The largest decline since 1991Show MoreRelatedPersonal Narrative Essay - Original Writing951 Words   |  4 Pageswas moving from Herriman to Draper. The move was accompanied with much sadness and frustration, but I have come to realize that the positive effects far outweigh the negative ones. The biggest result of the move ended up being the ward family we moved into. Other things I was ab le to do after the move were making friends and discovering many things that I could be passionate about. I am LDS and I have been my entire life. Where we lived out in Herriman my family was right on the ward boundary line

Employee Monitoring Workplace Privacy Rights Samples for Students

Questions: 1.Explain where an employee can reasonably expect to have privacy in the workplace. Please ensure that you properly reference your resources? 2.What are the pros and cons of anonymity on the Internet. In what situations should anonymity be restricted (either through technology or the law) and why? 3.In what ways does blogging challenge our current assumptions and norms concerning the intellectual property laws? 4.Should the rise of the Internet affect how we view or treat intellectual property,Why or why not? Answers: 1. One of the main issues in the management of the human capital is employee monitoring. There are various ways via which such monitoring is being conducted such as checking their computers which are specifically allotted to them, video inspection, intelligence work, snooping and wiretapping. However such activities may lead to compromising the confidentiality of the employees and weaken the professional fitness and safety. But the employers encounter the said criticism by defending that by checking the work of the employees, they ensure to put in adequate controls and ensure that their productivity is maximum. Even though the legal regime supports the employers point of view, they should also give due importance to the human aspects as well which may be destabilized because of such monitoring (Yerby, 2013). Thus the basic issue in todays work environment is the level of privacy an employee can expect at his workplace since it is very difficult to draw a line between the fact as to when does an employer or an employee is seen crossing the limits. There are some specific laws and regulations formulated for safeguarding the privacy rights of employees. For example there are laws that ensure right to privacy for employees personal data and information, medical information and the screening of their background and such historical records as well. But wherever such a regulation does not exist, there it becomes difficult to decide upon how much to intervene into the work of employees. In such a situation the employers are expected to exercise a reasonable level of privacy. Thus if there exists a situation wherein it was sensible enough for the employee to expect a certain degree of privacy to be maintained, then the court of law would consider that such a privacy right existed (Mishra, Crampt on, 1998) . Consideration of whether there was a practical anticipation of privacy calls for a balancing test. Various factors are accounted for which also includes the privacy policy penned down by the company and if the employees were made aware of non-existence of such a privacy, how and whether these policies were frequently imposed, the kind of privacy rights bestowed, the nature of employers business interest, the nature of employees privacy interest, the kind of data being involved and the level of interference by the employer(Gross, 2016). Further to this an employee ensure to comply with a reasonable level of privacy when he or she is using the email system of a company so as not to use it for sending any illegitimate messages or emails to any other employee. It has also been noticed that the federal and state laws have mentioned specially about the rights an employer possesses with regards the monitoring, safeguarding, sound tracking and accessing the employees usage of the electronic devices and such other communications systems installed in the company. But if an employer adheres to all these regulations that are mentioned in the stated regime and therefore pens down the policies which are in accordance with these laws then it would be next to impossible for the employees to ensure their performance to show a reasonable expectation of privacy while using the electronic communication systems installed within the organization (Rudner MacDonald 2014). The kind of technology being used by the employee also plays a vital role in determining the level of reasonable privacy at workplace. How the employee is communicating i.e. via text messaging, or a mobile phone or a laptop and if the technology that is being used does not provide data beyond what is available to the public, in such a scenario the employee cannot anticipate to have a reasonable level of confidentiality. Similarly, a text message is such a form of communication between the sender and the receiver which is construed to be private generally. But if the medium via which such a communication is taking place belongs to the employer, in such a situation the staff members will have to give way to the expectation for reasonable level of privacy if the employer retains the lawful right to in conducting a search of the device with which such communication took place. Further to this, if an employee is using the companys email to send personal mails to the third parties, then in such a situation the employer has all rights to check the same and the staff should not expect to have any reasonable level of privacy for the said data (Smith Burg, 2012). The employer in general course has full rights to access all the computer servers of the organization without any permission of the employee to whom the same is allocated as it is ultimately the property of the company, therefore in such a situation the employees should ensure that they have no rights to exercise any demand for privacy of data. Even if the employee deletes the emails, it is still available in the in the memory which is permanently backed up by the companys computer system. Thus on a concluding note, it is understood that an employee can reasonably expect to have privacy in the workplace but with some restrictions which would safeguard the company from any harm. Although the company can take steps to check and do vigilance on the various properties used by the employee, yet the same should be done within certain limits. 2. It is a wide spread concern as whether anonymity is a boon or a curse. Those who always want to maintain privacy, promote anonymity whereas those individuals who are security conscious and the various law enforcement officials want to end the same. Thus ti is very crucial to understand the pros and cons of anonymity. The drawback to anonymity can be seen in our daily lives specifically with regards spam mails wherein the mail ids of the spammers are hidden due to which the recipients of mail are not able to complain once they receive such mails (Rigby,1995). Due to maintenance of anonymity, the users end up sending abusive mails which is impossible to complain since the identity is hidden. Anonymity on the internet may often lead to a situation of identity crisis which is not healthy in the long run. The teens or such other people who hide their identity on the internet generally lead a very insecure life. Lastly, even though it is one of the best methods to try new things but it hinders making new relations with regards those interests since there is no identity with which a person can relate to. Thus a person is known only once he is connected to the internet and once the same is off, his identity also disappears. However, anonymity on the internet has some advantages of its own as well. Many people are not very confident in revealing oneself to the outer world such as those who belong to the LGBT community. For them connecting with others is very difficult, thus anonymity is one of the recourse to the same. Further to this a person is fearless i.e. not scared of any consequences and more free in his activities. This enables them to learn and develop skills in a better manner which they would otherwise be unable to. Lastly, areas of concern about which people are scared to discuss such as abortion, terrorism, political opinions, can easily now do it online and let the world know without any fear by hiding their identity, thus safeguarding them from any such untoward consequences (Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy, 2014). After reviewing all the pros and cons of anonymity on the internet, it is understood that the same should be restricted in some situations whether via technology or legal regime. Anonymity does not restrict an author from hiding his identity since it construes freedom of speech. Similar to this the law does not restrict a person to hide his identity while casting a vote. However, there has a drastic push on the internet which forces the obscurity providers to expose the individuality of users who have been criminals in the past. Further usage of anonymity for no reason but for the sake of should be avoided because unnecessary usage of anonymous identity defeats the entire purpose. Further if the same is being used for harassing people then the same should be restricted by technology first and then by law as it is illegitimate to harass someone (Trahan, 2011). Lastly, anonymity should be restricted to such websites which are meant for kids and it is very important that their identity is revealed so that they are not allowed to post something which is harmful to the minds of the kids. 3. Intellectual property is basically protection of ones own creation of human intellect such as an artistic, literary or scientific work. It basically helps to protect the invention of a particular person thus giving the creator an opportunity to utilise his creation full fledged till a specified period of time. Its impact on the growth of the economy of a country as well as the career of the creator is indispensable in nature. Thus if such a protection is not given then the genuine creators will not be held worthy for their creation. It has a great impact on the career success of a person. IP intensive industries account for million jobs wherein the weekly wages on an average amounts to 42 percent more as compared to the other sectors whereas in the patent and the copyright based industries the wage premium is all the more greater. Thus it is well understood that the absence of Intellectual property does impact the career of the creator. I am an author and if copyright is eliminated then it would have a significant implication on my career path. I will not have any control over my work and the originality will get defeated. As soon as my work starts t get copied, I as an author will loose the creditability of the same and it will be easily accessible to all (Copyrightsworld.com., 2013). The amount of earnings which I would have been able to earn will get diluted and reduced since the work would be easily copied and sold at a cheaper rate. The existence of copyright Intellectual Property helps in my career as it protects the right to duplicate my work, protects the distribution rights, protects the right to develop new work basis the already copyrighted one and protection of the right to perform the copyrighted work in public in the form of movies and theatre plays. Therefore if the copyright is eliminated then I as an author will not be able to earn from these public plays and movies which would utilise the story I have written to earn millions. Further the availability of the product will be so easy that people will not buy from proper stores the original copy and thus would lead to a loss to the publication house as well as the authors career since the publishers would not welcome such an author. Therefore it can be rightly said that for an author, his creative work is his asset as it can have a very significant value in the future and can also be used as collateral. Lastly the career graph can shoot up for an author if the work is protected via obtaining a license as if the same interests others also then I can gain financially from its use by others and thus help in protecting the work legally as well (Business IP Centre., 2017). Therefore elimination of copyright will significantly drool down the career path of me as an author. 4. I feel that the rise of internet does affect how one treats or views the intellectual property. The right to protect ones own work from being copied by someone else is not a new concept but an age old one, but with the advent of the internet, it has become very difficult to control ones intellectual property. Amongst the four intellectual property available i.e. patents, trademarks, copyright and trade secrets, one of the main issue is securing the copyrights in this age of digitalisation while ensuring to make them available to the public at large. As per Section 106 of the Copyright Act 1976, a person is allowed full rights to make a replica of such information, to prepare plagiaristic work, to distribute copies or act upon the copyrighted information but there is only one restriction levied by law i.e. the copyrighted shield exists from the moment the work is comes into existence in its fixed form the copyright is said to be safe automatically. Thus the data mentioned in any web page is construed as fixed form of cyberspace that are regulated under the purview of copyright regulations (Johnson, Walworth, 2003). Further the internet has impacted the treatment of intellectual property as the law even argues to the fact that Publication is no longer a key to obtaining federal copyright. Due to this the link between a copyright and web page gets strangled. Such is the case of Martha Stewart vs Myself wherein Martha Stewart has displayed on her website the confidential hush puppy recipe which may not be under the federal copyright but if the same is copied from her web page and pasted exactly on mine then it is construed to be a breach of the federal copyright laws. But the main issue due to which the said impacts the mannerism of treating the rise of internet on the intellectual property is that the copyright law only guards the thought of a writer but does not provide any shield to the way via which the said thought is articulated. Lastly the integration of anonymity into the procedure of copying and sharing the data from the net has smeared the difference between sharing and stealing. Thus it can be rightly said that the due to the internet, the procedural requirements for protecting the intellectual property has also become more cumbersome. However the same has affected our way of treating the same with more importance than in the past with various laws stating the penal charges with regards infringement of the intellectual property which is very difficult in the world of digitalisation. The internet has made it very difficult for the originators to think and work upon something more innovative as due to the piracy via the internet, the vale has been seen declining (Stoll, 2009). Thus due to the rise of the internet and the lack in the full fledged policy for treating plagiarism of the write ups, the intellectual property rights are seen to be losing the interest. References: Johnson, C., Walworth,D.J., (2003), Protecting U.S. Intellectual Property Rights And The Challenges of Digital Piracy, Office of Industries Working Paper, Available at https://www.usitc.gov/publications/332/wp_id_05.pdf (Accessed 23rd April 2017) Stoll,R.L., (2009), Protecting Intellectual Property Rights in a Global Economy: Current Trends and Future Challenges, Available at https://www.uspto.gov/about-us/news-updates/protecting-intellectual-property-rights-global-economy-current-trends-and (Accessed 23rd April 2017) Business IP Centre., (2017), Three reasons for copyright protection, Available at https://www.bl.uk/business-and-ip-centre/articles/three-reasons-for-copyright-protection (Accessed 23rd April 2017) Copyrightsworld.com., (2013), Why Copyright Protection is Important?, Available at https://www.copyrightsworld.com/copyright/why-copyright-protection-is-so-important/ (Accessed 23rd April 2017) Rigby,K., (1995), Anonymity on the Internet Must be protected, Available at https://groups.csail.mit.edu/mac/classes/6.805/student-papers/fall95-papers/rigby-anonymity.html (Accessed 23rd April 2017) Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy, (2014), Privacy and Information Technology, Available at https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/it-privacy/ (Accessed 23rd April 2017) Trahan,D., (2011), The Pros and Cons of Anonymity Online, Available at https://www.mediapost.com/publications/article/148008/the-pros-and-cons-of-anonymity-online.html (Accessed 23rd April 2017) Gross,B., (2016), Should Your Employees Expect Privacy In The Workplace?, Available at https://www.allbusiness.com/should-your-employees-expect-privacy-in-the-workplace-8518785-1.html (Accessed 23rd April 2017) Mishra,J., Crampton,S., (1998), Employee Monitoring: privacy in workplace, SAM Advanced Management Journal, vol.63, no.3, Available at https://www.freepatentsonline.com/article/SAM-Advanced-Management-Journal/21160636.html (Accessed 23rd April 2017) Rudner,S., MacDonald,N., (2014), The law, surveillance and employee privacy, Available at https://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/careers/career-advice/experts/what-privacy-rights-to-do-you-have-at-work/article19079506/ (Accessed 23rd April 2017) Smith,D.V., Burg,J., (2012), What Are The Limits of Employee Privacy?, American Bar Association, vol. 29, no.6, Available at https://www.americanbar.org/publications/gp_solo/2012/november_december2012privacyandconfidentiality/what_are_limits_employee_privacy.html (Accessed 23rd April 2017) Yerby,J., (2013), Legal and ethical issues of employee monitoring, Online Journal of Applied Knowledge Management, vol.1, no.2, pp. 44-55

Monday, April 20, 2020

The Industrial Revolution Was Dawning In The United States. At Essays

The Industrial Revolution was dawning in the United States. At Lowell, Massachusetts, the construction of a big cotton mill began in 1821. It was the first of several that would be built there in the next 10 years. The machinery to spin and weave cotton into cloth would be driven by water power. All that the factory owners needed was a dependable supply of labor to tend the machines. As most jobs in cotton factories required neither great strength nor special skills, the owners thought women could do the work as well as or better than men. In addition, they were more compliant. The New England region was home to many young, single farm girls who might be recruited. But would stern New England farmers allow their daughters to work in factories? The great majority of them would not. They believed that sooner or later factory workers would be exploited and would sink into hopeless poverty. Economic "laws" would force them to work harder and harder for less and less pay. How, then, were the factory owners able to recruit farm girls as laborers? They did it by building decent houses in which the girls could live. These houses were supervised by older women who made sure that the girls lived by strict moral standards. The girls were encouraged to go to church, to read, to write and to attend lectures. They saved part of their earnings to help their families at home or to use when they got married. The young factory workers did not earn high wages; the average pay was about $3.50 a week. But in those times, a half-dozen eggs cost five cents and a whole chicken cost 15 cents. The hours worked in the factories were long. Generally, the girls worked 11 to 13 hours a day, six days a week. But most people in the 1830s worked from dawn until dusk, and farm girls were used to getting up early and working until bedtime at nine o'clock. The factory owners at Lowell believed that machines would bring progress as well as profit. Workers and capitalists would both benefit from the wealth created by mass production. For a while, the factory system at Lowell worked very well. The population of the town grew from 200 in 1820 to 30,000 in 1845. But conditions in Lowell's factories had already started to change. Faced with growing competition, factory owners began to decrease wages in order to lower the cost--and the price--of finished products. They increased the number of machines that each girl had to operate. In addition, they began to overcrowd the houses in which the girls lived. Sometimes eight girls had to share one room. In 1836, 1,500 factory girls went on strike to protest wage cuts. (The girls called their action a "turn out.") But it was useless. Desperately poor immigrants were beginning to arrive in the United States from Europe. To earn a living, they were willing to accept low wages and poor working conditions. Before long, immigrant women replaced the "Yankee" (American) farm girls. To many people, it was apparent that justice for wage earners would not come easily. Labor in America faced a long, uphill struggle to win fair treatment. In that struggle, more and more workers would turn to labor unions to help their cause. They would endure violence, cruelty and bitter defeats. But eventually they would achieve a standard of living unknown to workers at any other time in history. In colonial America, most manufacturing was done by hand in the home. Some was done in workshops attached to the home. As towns grew into cities, the demand for manufactured goods increased. Some workshop owners began hiring helpers to increase production. Relations between the employer and helper were generally harmonious. They worked side by side, had the same interests and held similar political views. The factory system that began around 1800 brought great changes. The employer no longer worked beside his employees. He became an executive and a merchant who rarely saw his workers. He was concerned less with their welfare than with the cost of their labor. Many workers were angry about the changes brought by the factory system. In the past, they had taken great pride in their handicraft skills; now machines did practically all the work, and they were reduced to the status of common laborers. In bad times they could lose their jobs. Then they might be replaced by workers who would accept lower wages. To skilled craft workers, the Industrial Revolution meant degradation rather than progress. As the factory system grew,

Sunday, March 15, 2020

The Ambiguity of Afraid

The Ambiguity of Afraid The Ambiguity of Afraid The Ambiguity of Afraid By Maeve Maddox Jacqueline writes: I have a question about a †¦particular phrase, which can be read in two different ways†¦:I am afraid I am unable to meet your requirements. According to Jacqueline, the statement was interpreted by its recipient to mean the that the writer was taking the polite way to say they wanted to get out of their obligations, when in fact the writer wished to express the fear of something that this person did not want to have happen (meaning they were afraid that this was so, but did not want it to be the case) and also to convey a implicit request for help (please help me to overcome this fear.)    Jacqueline concludes that Had the statement been communicated orally†¦the meaning would have been communicated with inflection of the voice and other non verbal means. It is true that oral communication is aided by facial expression and inflection that does not exist in written expression. And it is true that the word afraid can be used with more than one meaning. The sentence in the question, for example can be construed to mean I am unable to meet your requirements (therefore, I wont be working with you). or Im uncertain as to whether or not I will be able to meet your requirements (so, tell me more). Either way, orally or in writing, if the person with whom the sentence originated was looking for a job, the thought should have been expressed more directly. Afraid is an adjective that comes from a verb, afray, meaning to frighten. Afraid derives from the past participle form. Until the late 16th century, Im afraid meant Im frightened. In the late 16th century, Im afraid came to mean I regret to say or I suspect, without any connotation of fear. Its ironic that, in a situation such as Jacqueline describes, if the speaker or writer actually has a sense of fear or misgiving, it is probably better to choose an expression other than Im afraid. I fear, or Im worried that might express the thought more clearly. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Expressions category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Useful Stock Phrases for Your Business EmailsThe Possessive ApostropheHow to Write a Proposal

Friday, February 28, 2020

Market Structure of the mining industry Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Market Structure of the mining industry - Essay Example Secondly, the industry bears a global trait as the largest companies come from distinct countries, including the developing nations (Shapiro, Rusell & Pitt, 2007). More to these, a lot of capital gets invested in this industry, which makes it capital intensive. Fatal injuries also characterize the mining industry according to Gunningham (2007). The ore bodies in this industry also have a relatively short productive life expectancy. More to these, the industry hires technicians to conduct the various processes, as well as engineers and geologists for short periods. In addition, areas affected by mining activities lack development, due to the negative environmental impacts of mining activities (Marinos, 2001). Gross defines an iron ore â€Å"as any merchantable or beneficiated mineral aggregate, that occurs in sufficient quantity to be a sustained supply of raw material to industry, and from which iron can be satisfactorily recovered under existing economic conditions or which may be usable in anticipated economic circumstances† (Geology Report No. 22). This means that iron ore mining serves as an important economic activity as it leads to the derivation of profits. In Minnesota, for example, this industry greatly affects the region. It contributes billions of dollars to the state’s economy. More to this, it accounted for 11,200 jobs in 2010 in the area, and pays huge taxes to the state, thus boosting the economic capacity of the region. Additionally, the industry supports local schools in Minnesota, thus highlighting the significance of this industry, wherever the activity takes place (â€Å"Minnesota iron Organization†, 2014). Various characteristics can be associated with this type of mining. First, iron deposits can be classified into three types. The first one relates to iron deposits that are suitable for iron ore in their natural condition. The second type refers to iron deposits